Russian/soviet masks

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

The SCHMS is generally observed to be issued with a long hose and GP-4u type filters

The Mask's Exhale Valve
The Mask's Exhale Valve

Markings read: 'C 85 5' These imply that the Mask was made in May of 1985 in Saratow City

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

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schMS gas mask

 

Years used: 1958 - Late 1980s. This Mask was made in the second quarter of 1985 (Betwen April and June).

Used by: Military

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Saratov City.

Aliases: The 'Monkey' Mask

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The GP-4u was issued with the GP-4u Filter

Markings on the Inside of the Bag
Markings on the Inside of the Bag

The significance of these markings is unknown

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

1/16

Gp-4u  gas mask

 

Years used: Late 1950s- Early 1990s (Used by Civil Defence Units). This Mask was made in the third quarter (between July and September) of 1968.

Used by: Civilians

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Jakowlew.

Aliases: N/A

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Straps have been pulled back to tighten the Mask in this image. The Straps were to be adjusted according to the amount of bandages found around the head of the wounded soldier

Markings on the Inside of the Mask
Markings on the Inside of the Mask

Markings roughly translate to 'made in December 1963'

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

1/14

schr 2 headwound gas mask

 

Years used: Early 1960s - Mid 1990s. This Mask was made in the fourth quarter (between October and December) of 1963.

Used by: Headwounded Soldiers

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Moscow.

Aliases: N/A

3/4 View of the Mask
3/4 View of the Mask

Side View of the Mask
Side View of the Mask

'Hood' has been raised over the Brow of the Mask

Posterior View of the Mask
Posterior View of the Mask

3/4 View of the Mask
3/4 View of the Mask

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AntiDust Mask PTM-1 (White Variant)

 

Years used: Assumed to have been used throughout the 1960s - 1970s. The age of this example is unknown

Used by: Civilians

Made by: Civilians (These masks were produced by Civilians, for Civilians. Public Instructors taught trainees how to cut out and sew up these Masks from fabric. As many of the trainees brought different coloured supplies with them, many variants arose)

Aliases: Soviet Radioactive Dust Mask

Description:  The PTM-1 Anti-dust mask was used by Russian civilians throughout the 1960s as a form of protection from radioactive dust (arising from nuclear fallout that follows the detonation of a nuclear bomb). This is justified by a translated publication released by the US Army Foreign Science and Technology Center in 1965 (original document published in 1963).

The mask’s simple design consisted of a fabric (coarse calico, staple/knitted linen or plaid) body made up of 2 parts and held onto the user’s head by elastic straps. 2 celluloid, plastic or glass eyepieces were integrated into the front of the mask, providing the individual with a field of view.

The mask was made in 7 sizes and has been observed in a wide variety of colours including: white; grey; green; blue; red and the odd ‘pyjama colour scheme’. This range of diversity is due to the use of both new and worn textiles, which could be used so long as the material was not threadbare or soiled.

PTM-1s were produced by civilians who were taught to cut the mask’s pattern through public demonstration. These were sewn together at home.

Copies of this mask include the Czech OR1 which was produced out of white fabric and had round lenses, instead of the conventional rectangular ones displayed by its Russian counterpart.

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

SHM-70R Facepiece

3/4 View of the Mask
3/4 View of the Mask

Markings inside the Carrier Bag
Markings inside the Carrier Bag

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

SHM-70R Facepiece

1/9

PRVM Kit/SHM-70R Facepiece

 

Years used: Throughout the 1980s. This Mask was produced in the first quarter (between January and April) of 1981 

Used by: Missile Handlers/Rocket Refuelers 

Made by: This example was made in Yaroslavl

Aliases: N/A

Description:  The first gas mask developed for use by Russian missile handlers and rocket refuelers was the PRV. This was replaced by the PRV-U in the mid-1970s and the PRV-M in the 1980s.

The PRVM Kit consisted of the SHM-70R (ШМ-70Р) Face-piece, a carrier bag, a КРВ-М filter (not pictured), anti-dimming lenses and NMU-1M insulating outserts.

The SHM-70R is a helmet-style respirator that bears a slight resemblance to the ШМ-66м (PMG-2 Face-piece). The 2 main differences include its Voice Diaphragm Cover (which is similar to that of the ШМС-Р Face-piece or PRV-U Gas Mask), the separation of the Filter Input and Exhale Valve and the absence of ‘ear holes’. The style of the Voice Diaphragm Cover protects the membrane underneath from damage due to heat and rocket fuel fumes. The exhale valve component is made up 2 valves, one internal and one external.

The face-piece exhibited here is a size 1 and was produced in the first quarter (January – April) of 1981 in Yaroslavl (Ярославль). It is assumed that the ‘87’ on the left side of the mask refers to its form.

Its rubberised fabric carrier bag has a number of pockets to contain the accessories mentioned earlier and is closed internally by 2 rubberised fabric wings and externally by a flap. All of these are held together by ‘peg-type’ fasteners. A hole surrounded by a metal ring can be found at the bottom of the bag. I suspect that this may have been used when a larger filter was employed. It could also have been used as a drainage hole.

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The GP-5 was used alongside the GP-5 Filter

Anti-dimming inserts
Anti-dimming inserts

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

1/15

gp-5 gas mask

 

Years used: Late 1960s- Late 1980s. This Mask was made in the third quarter (between July and September) of 1982.

Used by: Civilians/Industrial Workers

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Tambov.

Aliases: N/A

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The Mask's Filter has been covered in a Hydrophobic Filter Sock

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The PMG was used alongside the GP-5 Filter

Anti-dimming Inserts
Anti-dimming Inserts

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The Mask's Filter has been covered in a Hydrophobic Filter Sock

1/25

PMG  gas mask

 

Years used: Late 1963- Present Day (Now used for training purposes). This Mask was made in the fourth quarter (between October and December) of 1984.

Used by: Military

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Saratov City.

Aliases: N/A

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The Mask's Filter has been covered in a Hydrophobic Filter Sock

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The Mask's Carrier Bag
The Mask's Carrier Bag

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The Mask's Filter has been covered in a Hydrophobic Filter Sock

1/15

PMG-2 gas mask

 

Years used: Late 1960s -1980s. This Mask was made in the fourth quarter (between October and December) of 1980.

Used by: Military

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Jakowlew.

Aliases: GP-6 (Incorrect name) / GP-5u

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The MM-1 is generally observed to be issued with a long hose and GP-4u type filters

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Markings on the Inside of the Mask
Markings on the Inside of the Mask

Markings faintly read ' M 2 '. Their significance is unknown

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

The MM-1 is generally observed to be issued with a long hose and GP-4u type filters

1/13

MM-1B gas mask

 

Years used: Early 1970s - Throughout the 1980s. This Mask was made in the first quarter (between January and April) of 1975.

Used by: Military (Allegedly by Tank Crew and Radio Operators)

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Moscow

Aliases: N/A

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Side 2 of the Mask's Instructions
Side 2 of the Mask's Instructions

Papers that came with the re-packaged Mask

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

1/21

Pdf-Sh small child's gas mask

 

Years used: Throughout the 1970s and 1980s.  This Mask was made in the first quarter (between January and March) of 1977.

Used by: Young Civilians

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Ohrenburg.

Aliases: N/A

OPF Goggles and the OKZK Headgear
OPF Goggles and the OKZK Headgear

Side View of the Goggles
Side View of the Goggles

OPF Goggles/KZS Suit in use
OPF Goggles/KZS Suit in use

An excerpt from '3ащита от оружия массового поражения' showing the simultaneous use of the OPF Goggles and the KZS Suit

OPF Goggles and the OKZK Headgear
OPF Goggles and the OKZK Headgear

1/16

OPF Photochromic Flash Protective Goggles

 

Years used: Throughout the 1980s. This example was produced in the first quarter (between January and March) of 1984.

Used by: Military

Made by: This example was made in the city of Saratov.

Aliases: N/A

Description:  The OPF (ОПФ) Goggles were flash protective eyewear that utilized green photochromic glass lenses (that is, these lenses darkened on exposure to light of a sufficient and specific intensity/wavelength).  These goggles were used by the Soviet Military when dealing with situations involving high intensity nuclear flashes and have been observed to be worn with the OKZK Protective Suit alongside other setups (including the KZS suit).

The OKZK Cap is connected to its associated Collar through the use of a button system. The 2 bilateral collar ‘flaps’ are also held together at the midline by a similar system.  An opening on the left hand side of the Collar allowed a filter to pass through and connect to its respective mask (usually the PMK).

OKZK Headgear has been observed to be used with a number of different protective gear including: the PMK Respirator; the R2 Half-Mask Respirator; various “helmet-type” respirators and as mentioned previously, the OPF Goggles.

Similar to other protective gear of the time, the OPF Goggles are made of black rubber, with the related manufacturing information embossed in it. My goggles were produced in the first quarter of 1984 in the city of Saratov (as denoted by the ‘C’) and are size 2 (as indicated by the markings underneath the right lens and in between both lenses respectively).  The goggles were made in two sizes: 1 and 2. This pair of goggles was also of the second and final form produced.

The goggles are held on to the head by an adjustable 3 strap harness. The 2 horizontal straps are connected to green plastic components which permit the passage of the user’s ears, possibly allowing for the use of auditory protective equipment such as headphones.  The rubber of the harness is similar to that of Soviet respirators and is rough to the touch, increasing friction and preventing slippage off the head.

The goggles’ designation is denoted on the left ‘vent’ and is either of the ‘ОПФ’ type, or the ‘ОФ’ type. The two are virtually identical when comparatively viewed, although their lenses respond differently to changes in light intensity and return to their normal colours at different speeds.

The goggles were issued in a green plastic case, which is both simple and robust in design.  The plastic components are held together by a leather hinge that is riveted to the main structure and kept closed by a leather strap which serves as a fastener.  This strap may also be used to attach the case to the soldier’s equipment, making it easier to carry. The kit also included a cleaning cloth and 2 anti-fogging inserts.

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

This Mask was issued with the GP-7K type Filter

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

The Mask's Faceform
The Mask's Faceform

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

This Mask was issued with the GP-7K type Filter

1/21

gp-7 gas mask

 

Years used: Mid 1980s- Present Day (Updated versions of this Mask are used by civilians). This Mask was made in the fourth quarter (between October and December) of 1989.

Used by: Civilians

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Tambov.

Aliases: N/A

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Markings on the Inside of the Bag
Markings on the Inside of the Bag

The significance of this marking is on unknown

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

1/30

IP-4M Rebreather

 

Years used: Mid 1980s - Present Day. This Mask was made in the fourth quarter (between October and December) of 1988.

Used by: Military

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Saratov City.

Aliases: N/A

The Mask with its Drinking Canteen
The Mask with its Drinking Canteen

This Mask was issued with the EO-1-15-01 type Filter

Frontal View of the Mask with Filter
Frontal View of the Mask with Filter

This Mask was issued with the EO-1-15-01 type Filter

Anti-dimming Lenses
Anti-dimming Lenses

The Mask with its Drinking Canteen
The Mask with its Drinking Canteen

This Mask was issued with the EO-1-15-01 type Filter

1/46

pmk-2 gas mask

 

Years used: Late 1980s- Present Day. This Mask was made in the fourth quarter (between October and December) of 1988.

Used by: Military

Made by: Various Companies made this Mask as every region had its own manufacturer. This example was made in Tambov.

Aliases: N/A

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Protective Exhale Guard has been installed. This protected the Exhale Valve from freezing over in the winter

The Mask's Exhale Valve
The Mask's Exhale Valve

Protective Exhale Guard has been installed. This protected the Exhale Valve from freezing over in the winter

Anti-Fogging Insert Retainers
Anti-Fogging Insert Retainers

Frontal View of the Mask
Frontal View of the Mask

Protective Exhale Guard has been installed. This protected the Exhale Valve from freezing over in the winter

1/16

Rou Respirator

Years used: Early 2000s - Present Day.  This Mask was made in the third quarter (between July and September) of 2007

Used by: Military

Made by: Assumed to be made by various companies like most Russian Masks.  This mask was produced in Plant ЭХМЗ (Located near the town of Elektrostal)

Aliases: N/A

Description: 
The РОУ (which loosely translates to Universal Combined Arms Respirator) is a modern day Russian Respirator which saw its initial service in the early 2000s (my Example being from 2007). This Mask is said to protect the user against the hazardous environment brought about by Nuclear Explosion, including Nuclear Flash (СИЯВ in the original manual's text) and other harmful thermally-related factors, Atomic Dust (РП) and Related Toxic Gases (TX) which are found in the primary cloud and terrain-related dust following detonation. It is also believed to protect against liquid agents and aerosols.

 

The ROU (translated) is included in the OZK-F Kit, which consists of a ZFO Protective Suit and a PKR Kit (made up of the PMK-3 and ROU Protective Masks) and came in 3 sizes (1 being the smallest and 3 being the largest). The Example here is observed to be of size 2.

 

One unusual thing about the ROU is that it doesn't require the use of an external filter. This is as it is able to filter NBC agents as will be mentioned further on. The Mask's Facepiece consists of 3 layers, an outer camouflaged fire/flash retardant dimpled layer (which protects the user against Nuclear Flash), an intermediate Polymeric Filtering layer (which contains activated charcoal) and finally the innermost Non-woven Lavsan (Polyethylene terephthalate) layer (which protects the individual against damaging carbon particles which may leak out of the filtering layer and cause harm to his/her respiratory system) with which the user's face makes contact.

 

2 variants of the ROU are known to exist: the 'more common' NBC variant seen here and a Police version, which protects the user from Tear Gas. It also appears to have 2 prototypes: one consisting of an integrated Chemical Hood and the other being a panoramic variant. These were solely seen in an exhibition held a few years ago and it is unknown whether they are actually in use today.

 

The Mask's 5 Strap Head-harness is complemented by another strap which runs down from the mid-line of the Mask's brow towards its 'nose'. This Strap can be tightened in order to provide a better field of view (by pulling the Mask's lower Facepiece upwards), alongside (and more importantly) an airtight seal.

 

The ROU was issued and stored in a plastic bag (sealed by a rubber band) until it was to be used.

 

In order to protect the Exhale Valve from damage by frost, a rubber Protector or Air Deflector was installed onto the Mask (according to the manual this procedure was to be undergone at around -10C).

 

Anti-fogging Inserts fit inside the lenses and were installed in the following manner: the Insert was placed onto the inside of the Eye-Lens, followed by a rubber ring and finally the Plastic Retaining Ring issued with the Mask. PSZG-1 'Outsert Films' could also be added to the outside of the ROU's lenses to prevent it from mechanical damage (scratches).